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Sodium Hypochlorite
Chemical Formula: NaOCl or NaClO
HS Code: 28289019
Other names: Antiformin, Bleach, Chloride of soda


Sodium hypochlorite is a chemical compound with the formula NaOCl or NaClO, comprising a sodium cation (Na+) and a hypochlorite anion (OCl−or ClO−). It may also be viewed as the sodium salt of hypochlorous acid. The anhydrous compound is unstable and may decompose explosively. It can be crystallized as a pentahydrate NaOCl·5H2O, a pale greenish-yellow solid which is not explosive and is stable if kept refrigerated.

Sodium hypochlorite is most often encountered as a pale greenish-yellow dilute solution commonly known as liquid bleach or simply bleach, a household chemical widely used as a disinfectant or a bleaching agent.


Chemical formula: NaOCl
Molar mass: 74.442 g/mol
Appearance: Greenish-yellow solid (pentahydrate)
Odor: Chlorine-like and sweetish
Density: 1.11 g/cm3
Melting point: 18 °C (64 °F; 291 K) pentahydrate
Boiling point: 101 °C (214 °F; 374 K) (decomposes)
Solubility in water: 29.3 g/100mL (0 °C)



Household bleach is, in general, a solution containing 3–8% sodium hypochlorite, by weight, and 0.01–0.05% sodium hydroxide; the sodium hydroxide is used to slow the decomposition of sodium hypochlorite into sodium chloride and sodium chlorate.


Sodium hypochlorite has destaining properties. Among other applications, it can be used to remove mold stains, dental stains caused by fluorosis, and stains on crockery, especially those caused by the tannins in tea. It has also been used in laundry detergents and as a surface cleaner.


Sodium hypochlorite has deodorizing properties, which go hand in hand with its cleaning properties.

Nerve agent neutralization

At the various nerve agent (chemical warfare nerve gas) destruction facilities throughout the United States, 50% sodium hypochlorite is used to remove all traces of nerve agent or blister agent from Personal Protection Equipment after an entry is made by personnel into toxic areas. 50% sodium hypochlorite is also used to neutralize any accidental releases of nerve agent in the toxic areas. Lesser concentrations of sodium hypochlorite are used in similar fashion in the Pollution Abatement System to ensure that no nerve agent is released in furnace flue gas.

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